The publications listed here represent a small selection of the work of staff members of the GCILS. To see full listings of publications please click through to the University of Glasgow main webpages in each individual staff member profile.

The extraterritoriality of the ECHR: why Jaloud and Pisari should be read as game changers

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This article argues that Jaloud v Netherlands and Pisari v Moldova and Russia should be interpreted as changing the approach to the extraterritorial application of the European Convention on Human Rights. It advances three key arguments. First, it suggests a reading of these cases pointing to the fact that the European Court of Human Rights is no longer relying on the separation of the different models of extraterritorial jurisdiction. Secondly, it advances a model of jurisdiction based on power understood as a potential for control and the application of rules to the concerned individuals. Thirdly, it argues that this model is preferable to the previous ones because it explains hard cases just as well or better and, in addition, captures a distinct understanding of the function of human rights recognized in the Convention.

European Human Rights Law Review, 2, pp. 161-168.

La dynamique du principe de proportionnalité: essai dans le contexte des libertés de circulation du droit de l’Union européenne

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Le retentissement du principe de proportionnalité partout dans le monde constitue un des développements juridiques les plus significatifs des dernières années et explique l'intérêt considérable que suscite cette question dans la littérature française et internationale. À l'encontre des analyses qui ont tendance à banaliser son impact (notamment en le ravalant au rang de simple exception au fonctionnement normal du système juridique), cette thèse cherche à montrer que le principe de proportionnalité signifie un bouleversement profond du droit. L'analyse est abordée dans le contexte particulier de l'Union européenne, qui s'avère à maints égards paradigmatique, à partir d'un examen du raisonnement de la Cour de justice dans ses décisions en application des libertés de circulation. L'intérêt de cet examen est double. D'un côté, il permet de prendre acte de l'ampleur du potentiel transformateur du principe de proportionnalité sur les plans formel (imposant une forme de raisonnement factualisée, qui consiste en une évaluation coûts-bénéfices), matériel (érigeant l'efficience des mesures étatiques en but ultime des libertés de circulation) et institutionnel (redéfinissant la répartition de compétences entre l'Union et les États membres). D'un autre côté, le principe de proportionnalité étant un miroir particulièrement apte à refléter la culture juridique de l'Union, cet examen permet aussi d'identifier les traits caractéristiques de cette culture, pour montrer notamment la prévalence d'un discours de nature technocratique.

‘Determining International Responsibility Under the New Extra-EU Investment Agreements: What Foreign Investors in the EU Should Know’ (with Freya Baetens and Gerard Kreijen)

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The EU's newly acquired competence over foreign investment poses largely unprecedented legal challenges: the Union's unique structure and functioning are bound to raise questions about the traditional format of international investor-State arbitration. Anticipating these challenges, the European Commission has proposed a Regulation on managing the financial responsibility that arises out of such arbitrations; revised version of this proposal was adopted by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. After outlining the contemporary international investment regime, as well as the relevant aspects of the EU legal system, this Article scrutinizes three problematic issues under international law that arise from the Regulation: respondent status in international arbitral proceedings, attribution of treatment, and compliance with the final award. This Article also discusses the means of recourse open to EU Member States dissatisfied with the EU's performance as respondent or its apportionment of financial responsibility.

(2014) 47 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 1203

Research Handbook on the Law of Treaties

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The Research Handbook on the Law of Treaties provides an authoritative treatment of fundamental issues in international treaty law. Identifying key challenges facing the modern law of treaties, the Handbook addresses the current regime and comments on potential directions of the law.

Antonios Tzanakopoulos
Andreas Zimmermann

The Development of International Law by the International Court of Justice

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This book traces the impact that the International Court of Justice (ICJ), the principal judicial organ of the United Nations, has had on various areas of international law. A number of prominent international experts examine whether, and to what extent, international law has been shaped by the Court's jurisprudence. The informal development of international law through the Court's judgments contrasts with the development of international law through more deliberate means, such as treaty-making. Assessing key areas of international law over which the ICJ has exercised its jurisdiction, such as international environmental law, international human rights, the law of the sea, and the law of immunities, this book comprehensively details the impact of international jurisprudence on contemporary international law. It makes required reading for anyone studying the ways in which international courts have in shaping the evolution of international law.

James Sloan

Human Rights Implications of the Usage of Drones and Unmanned Robots in Warfare

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In recent years, the use of drones and other unmanned robots in warfare and other situations of violence has increased exponentially, and States continue to invest significantly into increasing the operational autonomy of such systems. The present study provides an overview of the current and likely future use of such systems and examines the relevant legal implications under human rights law, international humanitarian law and the UN Charter. The study concludes that the present sense of uncertainty as to the applicable legal standards, the rapid development and proliferation of drone and robotic technology, and the perceived lack of transparency and accountability of current policies have the potential of polarizing the international community, undermining the rule of law and, ultimately, of destabilizing the international security environment as a whole. Accordingly, the study develops a number of policy recommendations for European foreign policy.