Last week the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict (ELAC) hosted a virtual workshop sponsored by Microsoft, which led to a third Oxford Statement – The Oxford Statement on International Law Protections against Foreign Electoral Interference through Digital Means. 

GCILS’ Director, Professor Robin Geiß and Dr Anni Pues are amongst the signatories of the Statement.

“This Statement is the third arising out of a series of virtual workshops held in 2020 during the global pandemic at the University of Oxford, co-sponsored by the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict (ELAC) at the Blavatnik School of Government, Microsoft, and the Government of Japan. (…) It enumerates a range of duties of states: negative duties – to refrain from conducting cyber operations that have adverse consequences for electoral processes in other states, and not to render assistance to such operations, – as well as positive requirements of due diligence, and duties to protect and ensure the integrity of their own electoral processes from interference by other states.”

You can read the full Statement here.

For more details on the the Statement, please visit for a very interesting read.