Author Image

Dr Andrea Varga

Lecturer in International Law

Andrea Varga is Lecturer in International Law at the University of Glasgow. She was a Meijers PhD Fellow at Leiden University between 2011 and 2020, where she defended her doctoral dissertation on State Responsibility in the Absence of Effective Government. As part of her PhD research, she spent a semester as a visiting scholar at Columbia University in New York. Between 2015 and 2018, she worked as a Research Associate at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law within the University of Cambridge on the ESRC-funded Legal Tools for Peace-Making project. As part of her role, she oversaw the development of the award-winning Language of Peace database, created in collaboration with the UN Mediation Support Unit and housing around a thousand peace agreements digitized and categorized according to topic. She has an MA in International Relations (Corvinus University of Budapest) and an LLM in Public international Law (Leiden University, cum laude).

Andrea’s research interests include the law of (state) responsibility, secessionist entities in international law, rights and obligations of non-state actors, the interaction between human rights law and general international law, and judicial reasoning at international courts and tribunals.

Below is a list of key publications. For a full list please click on the following links:

University of Glasgow Profile



Determining International Responsibility Under the New Extra-EU Investment Agreements: What Foreign Investors in the EU Should Know

Read more about this publication

The EU's newly acquired competence over foreign investment poses largely unprecedented legal challenges: the Union's unique structure and functioning are bound to raise questions about the traditional format of international investor-State arbitration. Anticipating these challenges, the European Commission has proposed a Regulation on managing the financial responsibility that arises out of such arbitrations; revised version of this proposal was adopted by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. After outlining the contemporary international investment regime, as well as the relevant aspects of the EU legal system, this Article scrutinizes three problematic issues under international law that arise from the Regulation: respondent status in international arbitral proceedings, attribution of treatment, and compliance with the final award. This Article also discusses the means of recourse open to EU Member States dissatisfied with the EU's performance as respondent or its apportionment of financial responsibility.

Freya Baetens
Gerard Kreijen

Witnesses and Guarantors: Third-Party Obligations and the Internationalisation of Peace Agreements

Read more about this publication

While third states and international organisations often co-sign peace agreements in the capacity of witnesses or guarantors, little is understood of the legal consequences flowing from these roles. The chapter aims to fill this gap. First, it highlights that the mere designation of witness or guarantor leads to few consequences. Second, it analyses how specific third-party rights and obligations are established and conceptualised under VCLT rules, extended by analogy to intra-state peace agreements. Third, it provides a brief illustration of common third-party rights and obligations in peace agreements. Finally, it examines whether the involvement of third parties can internationalise an intra-state peace agreement, i.e. render it to be governed by international law. Bringing together views from the literature, jurisprudence and the preceding analysis on the structure of third-party rights and obligations, the chapter concludes that such rights and obligations can be internationalised, in a manner that can only extend to the agreement as a whole when inseparable from the rest of the agreement.

Introduction: Framing the Relationship between International Law and Peace Settlements

Read more about this publication

This introductory chapter identifies the key questions and themes for the International Law and Peace Settlements volume, and provides a framework and conceptual map for analysing the relationship between international law and peace settlement practice. In particular, it examines the concepts of peace and war, and their relation to law, before developing a working lexicon for peace agreements and settlements. The chapter then critically examines the legal character of peace agreements and settlement commitments as ‘legal tools’ for peace-making. This analysis provides essential foundations to map out the ways in which peace settlements and international law can interact. Those forms of interaction become key focal points for the various contributions in the remainder of the volume. The thematic rationale and structure of the volume is explained to orientate the reader in light of its key themes and questions.

Mark Retter
Marc Weller